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In order to keep improving, we need your feedback! Regarding the ash content, all formulations produced presented these guerra dos cupcakes download levels, being observed a decline in their content during the substitution of vegetable fat by biosurfactant. Values of Since the biosurfactant is читать больше glycolipid, it may have contributed to the increase in the carbohydrate content of the formulated product. Similarly, Emily\’s new haircut could guerra dos cupcakes download cu;cakes new beginning in the protagonist\’s personal as well as professional life. Full consumption control:For full control and a complete overview of your mobile phone contract, download the new Klarmobil.

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The MTT 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was carried out with mice fibroblast cells L and renal epithelial cells of African green monkey Vero , cell obtained from the Rio de Janeiro cell bank Rio de Janeiro, Brazil , as described by Resende et al.

The cells were detached with trypsin solution 0. The percentage inhibition was calculated using GraphPad Prism 7. A cake dough formulation was used as a reference Cross, , according to Table 1. Vegetable fat and liquid whole egg were beaten with a N50 planetary mixer Hobart GmbH, Offenburg, Germany for 60 s speed 3. After cooling, the cupcakes were stored in plastic bags until analysis 18—24 h after cooking. The cupcake formulations were processed in triplicate. Weight, diameter and height were evaluated.

Weight was determined using a 0. Four samples selected randomly were put next to one another and the total diameter was measured with a caliper Mitiyoto Co. The average of the two measurements divided by four was taken as the final diameter. Test methodologies were used according to AOAC The total protein concentration was calculated using the Kjeldahl method, based on the acid digestion of organic matter followed by distillation, with nitrogen subsequently dosed by titration; and the nitrogen value multiplied by the 6.

The carbohydrate content was obtained from the difference between and the sum of the moisture, protein, lipid and ash determinations. To determine the energy value, the mass values of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins were multiplied by 4, 9 and 4, respectively Pires et al.

All analyzes were performed in triplicate. Means and standard errors were calculated using Microsoft Office Excel The most important properties for verifying the effectiveness of a biosurfactant are related to surface and interfacial tensions. The results obtained for surface and interfacial tension for the biosurfactant produced by C.

According to Akbari et al. The biosurfactant was isolated from a procedure developed in the laboratory. The method has advantages over other methods conventionally used for the extraction of biosurfactants, since initial stages of centrifugation and filtration are discarded, in addition to the use of a lower volume of solvent ethyl acetate. The biosurfactant yield obtained was CMC corresponds to the lowest concentration of surfactant necessary to reduce surface tension as much as possible.

This condition is reached when micelles start to form in solution and there is no further reduction in surface tension Rocha e Silva et al.

The reduction in surface tension as a function of the concentration of biosurfactant is shown in Fig. The CMC of the biosurfactant was determined as 0. CMC is related to the efficiency of surfactants and ranges from 0. Biosurfactants are more efficient as they have reduced CMC Santos et al. Therefore, we can say that the CMC of the biosurfactant from C. The emulsification index E 24 is a qualitative and fast method for evaluating the emulsifying properties of surfactants.

According to Campos et al. The emulsifying capacity of the C. Guar gum was used as a comparison, since it has regulation documented by the FDA as an emulsifier for food purposes Sharma et al.

The results obtained indicate that both bioemulsifiers were able to satisfactorily emulsify the studied oils. The increase in the concentration of biosurfactant, as expected, increased the emulsification percentages.

It is important that the emulsions formed in any process remain stable for marketing purposes. In this sense, the evaluation of the emulsion particle size distribution is necessary for the study of the physical properties of a biosurfactant, since it is possible to observe the emulsion droplet size Luo et al. According to Kokal , both the size of the droplets and the form of their distribution depends on related factors, including surface tension, nature of the emulsifier, properties of the oil used, in addition to the shear rate mixtures, etc.

Analyzing Fig. It is also possible to observe that the microphotographs for peanut oil showed a more uniform aspect regarding the size of the droplets, corroborating the results presented in Table 2 , where the highest emulsification indexes were obtained.

The thermostability profile of the produced biosurfactant is shown in Fig. Regarding the thermogravimetric analysis, it was possible to obtain the mass loss curve of the biosurfactant as a function of temperature. According to Fig.

For DSC analysis, the biosurfactant thermogram showed an exothermic peak with a crystallization temperature of Lipid oxidation and enzymatic activities are problems of great significance in the food industry, which can result in changes in the chemical composition of the food, thus reducing its quality and shelf life. Catches of organic radicals such as DPPH or reduction of complexes such as phosphomolybdenum, were determined and the percentages of total antioxidant capacity of the solutions of the biosurfactant are shown in Table 3.

The biosurfactant showed promising results in relation to the technique of reduction of the phosphomolybdenum complex. The results showed a linear relationship, indicating that the increase in the concentration of biosurfactant favors the increase in its activity.

Thus, in higher concentrations, the biosurfactant produced has the potential for application in foods lacking in antioxidants. Comparing the percentages with the Trolox reference, the biosurfactant showed The biosurfactant did not present good percentages of inhibition of the radical in comparison with the standard Trolox, which was able to inhibit in Several microbial metabolites often have an adverse effect on host organisms, triggering epidemic diseases, including neurotoxic and cytotoxic effects Patowary et al.

Therefore, a cytotoxic evaluation of these metabolites is extremely important. The results of percentage of cell viability obtained for the analyzed concentrations of the biosurfactant are described in Table 5. According to Gomes Silva et al. Thus, the biosurfactant did not show cytotoxic potential compared to the studied strains.

For MTT testing especially this type of phenomenon is not uncommon. The visual appearance of the cupcakes after baking is illustrated in Fig. The results demonstrate that there were no major discrepancies between the different formulations in relation to the evaluated parameters.

Thus, the partial or total replacement of vegetable fat by the biosurfactant did not cause significant changes in the physical properties of the cupcakes, despite the more pronounced fluctuation observed in the values found for Height, which remained within an acceptable margin. Visually Fig. Making a comparison with the values found in Height and Weight of the standard formulation versus formulations with the addition of biosurfactant, it is possible to observe that even noting a variation in the Height values, the respective weight measurements did not undergo significant changes.

The results obtained for the physical—chemical composition and the energy value of the cupcakes are shown in Table 7. With respect to moisture, a significant decrease was observed between the three formulations proposed, with no significant difference between the standard formulations and formulation A.

The vegetable fat used in the formulation of the cupcakes in this work, as an emulsion, is composed of an oily phase and an aqueous phase. As a consequence, cupcakes containing vegetable fat in their composition had a higher moisture content compared to cupcakes that contained biosurfactant in the formulation.

Moisture can affect the shelf life of cupcakes, considering that it is related to the water activity present in the food, which favors microbial contamination. There was no significant difference between the formulations regarding the levels of lipids found in the cupcake samples.

Considering that the C. However, it is possible to observe an increase in the percentage of lipids with the increase in the percentage of biosurfactant in cupcakes due to the lipid nature of glycolipids. Thus, it can be suggested that the replacement of vegetable fat by biosurfactant allows an improvement in the quality of the formulated dessert. Regarding the ash content, all formulations produced presented these different levels, being observed a decline in their content during the substitution of vegetable fat by biosurfactant.

Likewise, the protein content decreased as the incorporation of the biosurfactant increased. Since the biosurfactant is a glycolipid, it may have contributed to the increase in the carbohydrate content of the formulated product. The energy value did not vary significantly between the standard formulation and formulations A and B, and there was no difference between formulations B and C.

Regarding the pH of the cupcakes, there was a decrease when the biosurfactant was added to the formulation in increasing concentrations, but this decrease did not affect the quality of the cupcakes. Analyzing the surface and interfacial tensions obtained in this work for the C. Similar results were also found by Shah et al. Values of The sophorolipids produced by Starmerella bombicola cultivated in waste cooking oil reduced the surface tension to The yeast Sporisorium sp.

Regarding the isolation of the biosurfactant, Ribeiro et al. Pinto et al. The use of waste cooking oil as substrate to produce biosurfactants by Starmerella bombicola in a batch fermentation in the presence of ultrasound gave The fed-batch mode of fermentation, on the other hand, gave Kaur et al.

A sophorolipids titer of Shah et al. The sophorolipids reduced the surface tension of pure water to Your personal information is also displayed for you at a glance. Customers with multiple contracts can easily switch back and forth between contracts in the app. For a quick check, simply use our practical widget with information on data, telephony and SMS consumption.

In order to keep improving, we need your feedback! If you have any questions or suggestions, the klarmobil. You can reach us at www. Good to know:To use the app, log in with your email address and your password, which you also use for the online service at www. Have fun with the App! Download APK now Versions history 1. The short clip witnessed the protagonist, Emily played by Lily Collins , get a haircut. This could be interpreted as a total makeover for the upcoming season as well.

Season 3 of Emily in Paris is set to premiere on Netflix on December 21, Emily just gave herself bangs! This might come as a big relief to fans of the show, who were left speculating whether or not she would decide to stay back in France – a cliffhanger from season 2. Addressing the same, Emily said: \”This is the hardest decision I have ever had to make.

This is just something that I have to do. Read on to learn more about season 3 of Emily in Paris. The new haircut could welcome a new Emily in Emily in Paris season 3 View this post on Instagram Instagram Post Fashion has been a metaphor for every emotion of Emily in Paris ever since the series\’ inception in


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